The Var



JUNE 7, 1988

7)0 ro courtesy

U of T mechanical engineering students Chris Wheat, Neil Donohoe, Alex Kung and Steve Harkness (driver) recently drove their Spirit of 8T8 in the Shell Fuelathon. 22 teanns participated to determine the car with the best mileage. U of T's other car, White Lightning, by John Zoratto and Ray Skinner, captured the Technical Merit Award. Both cars were design projects necessary for a degree.

Pub manager fired

SAC pub safe robbed

New $16m centre Alzheimer's, other


\/arsity Staff Writer

The Students' Administrative Council has fired pub manager Ira Baptiste in the wake of a $6,000 theft from the SAC pub over the May 14 weekend.

Baptiste was dismissed from her position May 31.

According to SAC Services Commissioner Don Rambajan, the pub's safe was left open, and the money taken from there. This, plus the fact that the amount of money on hand was so large, constituted a "very unusual" situation, he said.

"It's not normal," Rambajan said. "Procedures were broken. It was very unusual for that to happen and for so much money to be left in the safe."

Rambajan said no deposit had been made in approximately two weeks.

"I think it was just a matter of negligence. No

to study diseases


U of T will soon be home to a new $16 million Centre for Research in

Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Named after Bahamas- based businessman Mark Tanz who pledged $4 million and solicited a further $2.7 million the Centre will do research into Alzheimmer's, Parkinson's, and Lou Gehrig's diseases among others. It will be housed at the corner of College Street and Queen's Park Crescent in the Tanz Neuroscience building, now the Botany building. Construction is tentatively scheduled to start January 1,

Marisa Albuquerque

The Botany... oops, the Tanz Neuroscience Centre

1989, with the Botany Department slated to move into the new Earth Sciences Building. The Centre is designed to

Governing Council reforms itself

(Staff) After years of wrangling and negotiation, U of T's Governing Council unanimously approved changes to its own structure at its May 19 meeting.

Governing Council is the university's highest governing body, responsible for setting tuition fees, approving curriculum standards, and overseeing all aspects of the university's administration.

The changes will see a greatly increased role for academics and academic administrators on GC. Faculty will hold a majority of the seats on a new, 114-seat Academic Board that will replace the current Academic Affairs and Planning and Priorities committees.

A 25-member Business Board and a 20-member University Affairs Board complete the changes, made primarily to placate faculty and principals, deans and directors of university divisions who were unhappy with the level of input they were getting into university decision-making.

The changes also allow the new bodies which will continue to report to Governing Council to formulate policy. In the past, GC committees were restricted to approving, rejecting or referring back to their orignators any new policies.

identify the causes of degenerative diseases of the human brain, and to develop treatments for them.

The main focus of the Centre's early research will be on the causes and treatment of Alzheimer's, said Interim Director Donald McLachlan. "Alzheimer's represents a major health concern. It is the major neurodegenerative disease," he said.

Until now, research in neurodegenerative diseases has been fragmented. The Centre represents the first concentrated research related to the field in Canada.

Catherine Bergeron, a neuro-pathologist at Toronto General Hospital, welcomes the Centre.

"As research in neuroscience becomes more advanced, it gets more specialized and each scientist's scope becomes smaller," she said. "So having a coordinating facility like this one makes Continued on page 12

proper reason was given why it was not deposited at the proper time," Rambajan said.

Norinally, the procedure for taking care of the cash receipts involved a daily deposit.

Both campus police and Metro police_were called after Baptiste discovered the money missing Monday, May 16.

"When I went in in the morning to do the deposit the safe was open," she said.

Neither SAC nor U of T police would confirm the amount missing, except to say it was "about $6,000."

In light of the theft, SAC has implemented a number of emergency measures including restricting access to the back room of the pub.

Rambajan said there was no evidence of forced entry, but neither the police nor members of the SAC executive would speculate as to whether the theft had been an inside job.

"I can tell you quite frankly J d<^n't know whether it was an internal or an external job," said Kevin Ward, the campus police officer in charge of the investigation.

However a spokesperson for Metro police said "there are suspects involved."

Because the safe was left unlocked, Rambajan said, the loss will not be covered by insurance. Opinion as to what the loss will mean to SAC, however, differs among members of the executive.

Rambajan said The Hangar has traditionally made little profit, so that whatever money there was went back into the running of the pub. "The money the pub makes more or less is generated to improve the pub, (to) advertising and publicity for the pub," he said. "(The theft) is a loss for the pub."

However SAC president Bill Gardner feels the loss will have more wide-ranging effects.

Gardner said "that ($6,000) was pub money but that is a loss to SAC, there is no doubt about it. It's $6,000 SAC won't have to

put towards other projects."

Until a new pub manager has been hired the pub will be run by assistant manager Tony Evans and by Rambajan.

Metro police in co- ordination with U of T police are still investigating.

Mart, Lyall

Stephen Lewis

Lewis to spend next two years at U of T

BY DANIELLE ADAMS Varsity Staff Writer

Stephen Lewis, Canada's Ambassador to the United Nations since 1984 and a former leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party, will be joining U of T's faculty in the fall.

Lewis will replace journalist Robert Fulford as University College's Barker Fairley Distinguished Visitor in Canadian Culture. In the following year Lewis will be at U of T's Faculty of Law as a special lecturer.

"He decided his time at the UN is over and (he) wishes to return to this part of the world," University College Vice Principal Arthur Sherk said.

During his one-year appointment at UC, Lewis intends to write a book about Canadian and American foreign policy and his UN experiences. Sherk said he hoped Lewis could be worked into the Canadian Studies

Continued on page 3

Summiteers invade U of T


U of T's Hart House and Faculty Club will be in the international spotlight later this month as Canada hosts the fourteenth Economic Summit of major Western po\yers.

The summit, which takes place Sunday, June 19 to Tuesday, June 21, will bring together the leaders, foreign and finance ministers of Canada, France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, Britain, and the US, and representatives of the Commission of the European Communities (formerly the European Economic Community).

Between 1,200 and 1,500 delegates are expected to attend, with between 4,000 and 5,000 members of the media there to cover the event.

A series of working dinners and informal sessions, as well as the official summit photograph, will take place at the two university locations.

On Sunday, June 19, a working dinner for foreign ministers will take place at the Faculty Club. Then, on Monday, June 20, the evening informal session for heads of government will take place at Hart House. Three separate working dinners, for the heads of government, foreign

ministers and finance ministers, will also be held at Hart House that evening.

Due to the tight security surrounding the summit, several areas will be off- limits to the public, including:

Hart House (Saturday, June 18 at 12:01 am to Tuesday, June 21), with full access and facilities restored by 6:00 pm

•University College (Friday, June 17, after night classes end to Tuesday, June 21, in the morning)

16 Hart House Circle,

home to the Classics Dept. and the Ombudsman's Office (Monday, June 20)

The Students' Continued on page 6


The Varsity

-Tuesday, June 7, 1988


Wide selection of Business, Governmental and International Publications


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VOLUME II - The Free Trade Agreement consisting of the full text as signed by Canada and the United States.

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1988 466 PP $19.95

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MIDSUMMER CELEBRATION Saturday, June 25 - Sunday, June 26, 1988


Swimming (bring a towel) Tours of the 150 Acre Farm Baseball Game (bring a baseball glove) Star-gazing - Kite-flying Evening Bonfire on the Pond Fireworks

Lunch, Supper for all - Overnight, Breakfast With Bus - $15.00 With own transportation - $12.00 Day visit on Saturday with own transport - $12.00 Buses leave Hart House at 11:00 a.m. Saturday Leave the Farm at 11:00 a.m. Sunday Bring Sleeping Bags or Blankets Bring a tent if you want to sleep outside

















Ca// for nominations for co-opted members of committees for 1988-89

Co-opted seats are available for students, administrative staff and alumni on the following committees of the Governing Council for 1988-89:

Academic Board

Committee on Academic Policies and Programs

Budget Committee

Planning and Priorities Committee

Business Board

University Affairs Board

A limited number of co-opted seats are available for teaching staff on the following committees:

Business Board University Affairs Board

Nominations should include an up-to-date c.v. and should be submitted to:

Dr. J.G. Dimond Secretary Governing Council Room 106 Simcoe Hall

The deadline for nominations is 5:00 p.m. on Thursday, June 30th, 1988.

Inquiries should be directed to Dr. Dimond at 978-21 1 7

Tuesday, June 7, 1 988-

Th e Varsity


Ontario Treasurer says no to sale of libraries

BY MICHEL BOUCHARD Varsity Staff Writer

U of T's plan to sell its library books and lease them back for a profit of $10-15 million was torpedoed May 5 by provincial Treasurer Robert Nixon.

Under the proposal, both U of T and the company would have come out winners. U of T would have received a large lump sum payment. Most of that could have been spent immediately on university projects, while the rest would be invested. The invested money would be used to buy back the books over time. The agreement would guarantee U of T's right to buy the books back.

The company would use its taxable income to buy the books, thus avoiding paying taxes on that money in the short term. And it would get back its original investment from the university over time.

Under the U of T proposal, no changes to the set-up of the libraries would occur.

U of T Vice President (Business Affairs) Alec Pathy estimated the sale of

the books would have been worth $200-250 million, with U of T making $10-15 million over the length of the agreement.

Pathy said he approached i Robert Nixon, Provincial Treasurer, a year ago with the plan.

"We were disappointed with the government moratorium," said Pathy. "The provincial government had over a year to develop a pohcy. The Treasurer wrote to us a year ago and said what we were contemplating was perfectly legal, but they questionned whether it was appropriate for our type of institution and (he said) they were going to develop a policy."

Mike Gourely, Assistant Deputy Minister in the Ministry of Treasury and Economics, said the government told the university the proposal was "was under review and this (the moratorium) is the action that was taken."

Gourely said the Treasurer was against the sale and leaseback of institutional property because it is not an effective way to raise money for universities. Out of every $1(X) the government would

lose in tax revenue under such an agreement, only $10 would go to the universities. The other $90 would go to intermediaries such as leasing companies and the

financial companies who set up the transactions.

Gourely said the moratorium covers all publicly-funded institutions such as hospitals and

universities. He also added that no decision was made as to what would be done if a public institution did not follow the Treasurer's moratorium.

"(The moratorium) was initiated by Ontario and other provinces are looking to doing the same thing," Gourley said.

"The government has increased its assistance to universities dramatically," he said. Assistance has increased seven per cent this year.

The University of Western Ontario was in the process of completing a leaseback transaction when the Treasurer announced the moratorium. The university complied.

The proposal to allow Alec Pathy to negotiate a similar deal went to GC's executive committee the same day the Treasurer announced the moratorium. The executive referred the matter back to the Business Affairs committee, which decided not to proceed with the leaseback negotiations at, its May 30 meeting.

Students in orbit over Space U


Varsity Staff Writer

Two U of T graduate

Blaze destroys exams


An early morning fire Friday, May 20 destroyed over 750 unwritten Faculty of Medicine exam papers. The Toronto Fire Marshall's office has confirmed arson was the cause of the blaze, which gutted a vault in the Student Affairs office of the Medical Sciences building.

Besides the exams, graduates' records- dating

from the 1950's went up in smoke, but these can be replaced from backup files, according to Edward Sellers, Associate Dean of Academic Affairs in the Faculty of Medicine.

There was extensive smoke and heat damage in the nearby offices, and computers in a third floor physiology lab were also affected by the heat. Sellers estimates damages at "tens of thousands of dollars."

The fire was first detected

Former NDP leader Lewis comes to U of T in the fall

Continued from page 1

Program at UC.

"He will have an office in the college and will devote his time to talking to those students and staff who wish to talk to him," Sherk said.

Desmond Morton, Principal of Erindale College and an NDP historian, welcomed the appointment.

"Lewis is a very eloquent man with a lot of things to communicate. The excitement he was able to generate at U of T in the late '50's is sorely needed.

Lewis is familiar with U of T. He attended this university as well as the University of British Columbia, and two of his children attend UC. Lewis left university before he completed his degree to travel and teach in Africa.

Sherk said the college gives preference to non- academics when choosing the Barker Fairley Chair, because of the practical experience they bring the college in their fields. He said the appointment is a "cross- fertilization with the real world."

Lewis began his political career in 1963 at age 25 when he became one of the youngest members ever to sit in the Ontario Legislature. Since then, he has repeatedly distinguished himself as an outspoken politician fighting for human rights.

In 1983, his CBC radio documentaries on the Holocaust in literature and film won him a human rights award. Since then, he has won two other human rights awards for his work in politics, and for his social and political commentary.

During his tenure at the UN Lewis spoke against injustices of both the right and left, and was an outspoken critic of the Soviet invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and the atrocities committed there.

Africa was also a top priority for Lewis in the UN, culminating with his appointment as the Advisor on African Affairs to UN Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar.

at 5:45 am by anatomy professor Mike Bertram, who was preparing a neuroanatomy practical examination. He smelt smoke from his sixth fioor office and immediately called campus police.

"The goddamned phone rang at least 12 times," Bertram fumed. "I thought the fire was up here. It was like hot metal."

The arsonist entered through the adjacent Medical Science auditorium, crossing to the Medical Science building by breaking a window in the third fioor Alumni Lounge. The arsonist then smashed the glass on the main floor office door and unlocked it. Once in the office, s/he pried open a steel door leading to the vault and set the contents on fire.

Sellers speculates that the sole motive was to destroy the exams. "The petty cash box is still there," he said. Nothing is missing from the vault.

A third-year exam had to be rescheduled for later in the day due to the blaze. However, other exams were unaffected, as the facuUy provided replacement copies. "We have been meeting with each medical class, and letting them know how it affects them," Sellers said.

It is not known whether this incident is related to the theft of a second year genetics exam last year. The fire marshall's office and Metro police are continuing their investigations.

At present, the strongest lead is fingerprints found in the glass door. "It could be malicious damage to the faculty by disgruntled applicants, students, or individuals with a mental disorder," Sellers said.

students have been selected to study this summer at the experimental new International Space "University in Boston.

They are two of eight Canadian students attending the nine week course, being held on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

For Daniel Blanchard, a PhD astronomy student, involvement in space exploration is a logical extension of his studies.

"What I'm interested in is being partially involved in the space program," he said. "I would like to see astronomers getting involved in (space exploration), getting telescopes into orbit and doing research in space."

Kristina Valter said her studies in biomedical engineering, in which she is completing a master's degree, were a means for her to get involved in the space program.

"I've been interested in space research for a number of years, and I've also been interested in life sciences," she said.

"Basically, what I'm looking to do is combining the two fields... to look at how man fits in space and what the effects of space will be on the physiology of man."

At the university, the multi-national student body will study all aspects of life in space. Subjects as diverse as space architecture, space policy and law, and space resources will be the focus of lectures.

"The ultimate goal (of the university) is to have an actual campus in orbit, or at a manned lunar base, or even on Mars," explained Blanchard.

Valter admitted that she had been "skeptical" about the program, but after travelling to Boston last year, she was impressed at how seriously the project was being viewed by the organizers.

"All these people who were very well established in industry (and) on boards of directors, were giving their

Wanda Stride

Kristina Valter

money and time," she said. "After seeing that, you start thinking 'There must be more to it than I thought.'"

The organizers' attitude was mirrored by the students. By the January 31 deadline, candidates had to write two essays on their future plans and how they would benefit from the Space University experience. Letters of recommendation and transcripts were also required.

Only six Canadian students were expected to be selected, but at the end of March, eight received letters of acceptance.

Federal agencies and business raised $60,(XX) to send seven of the students. A funding scare, which threatened the participation of one of the Canadians,

Wanda Stride

Daniel Blanchard

was quickly remedied with a $10,000 donation from SPAR Aerospace.

Just University the future According Hkely that travel to over the possibly to

here the Space will be based in is being decided, to Valter, it is the campus will various countries next five years, Canada in 1990.

Blanchard, not surprisingly, is enthused about the program.

"This is the first time (for) anything like this, and it's really fantastic," he said. "There are going to be students from China and the Soviet Union, people who you would normally never meet, and I'm going to have a chance to work with them for nine weeks. It's just a great opportunity."

Provincial money not enough, critics say

BY JOHN FUTHEY Varsity Staff Writer

The provincial budget released in May spells more bad news for Ontario universities, according to student and university groups.

The groups accuse the goverrmient of turning a blind eye to the difficult situation created by underfunding, and say the government is virtually dismissing an 1 1 per cent enrolment increase as "temporary." And, they say, the 7.1 per cent increase in university funding contained in the budget falls far short of the average budget increase of 8.7 per cent.

Under the new budget, universities will receive grants of $88 million an "accessibility envelope" to help neutralize the increase in applications caused mainly by the abolition of grade thirteen.

Duncan Ivison, campaign researcher for the Ontario Federation of Students, says this is nowhere near enough.

Continued on page 10

The Varsity

-Tuesday, June 7, 1988


The Varsity 44 St. George St. Toronto, Ont. M5S 2E4 (416) 979-2831 (Editorial) 979-2865 (Advertising)

"The ultimate goal (of the university) is to have an actual campus in orbit, or at a manned lunar base, or even on Mars."

Space university student Daniel Blanchard reaches for the stars.


Editor News Editor Production Manager Associate Editor Review Editor Sports Editor Associate News Editors

Features Editor Science Editor Photo Editor Provisional Photo Editor Graphics Editor

Isabel Vincent Ian Jack John Futhey Jean McNeil Pegatha Taylor M.L. Duvall Michel Bouchard Wanda Stride Karen Hill Berton Ung Andrew Strieker Fitzroy Anderson Sean C. Philpotts

Contributors: Krishna Rau, Karl Hansen, Alan Sharpe, Ken Raymond, David Berman, Lewko Hryhorijiw, Sari Alter, Kate Fillian, David Maltby, Mark Lyall, Marisa Albuquerque, Anoop Sayal, Kenneth Oppel, Karen Bliss, Janice Weaver, Karen Bliss, Salvador Lois, Anne Wood, Ken Wilkinson, Greg Kiez, Clive Thompson, Danielle Adams, Larissa Diakowsky.

Accounting Manager Advertising Sales

Cheryl Beatty Karen Hill Debbie Harris

The \'arsitv is the University of Toronto's official undergraduate student newspaper, published since 1880. Any U of T student can contribute to The y'arsity and become a member of the staff. No experience is necessary to participate. Staff membership is granted automatically upon eight contributions being made over at least five issues. Non-students can participate, but jfre not eligible for staff status. Through free votes, the staff regulates the editorial policies of The x'arsity. Every March staff members elect editors, who coordinate all aspects of the largely volunteer publication.

v'arsity Publications is the student-run corporation that publishes The N'arsiry twice weekly and The \'arsity Student Handbook annually in September. Supported by a levy of $1.25 per full-time undergraduate student, the majority of the corporation's budget is derived from advertising revenue.

The corporation's goals are to provide U of T with an open, representative press in which all students arc free to participate. The business affairs of %'arsitv Publications are regulated by a Board of Directors most of whom are elected by the students at large every March. The Board is also responsible for editorial integrity and resptinsibiiity. but exercises this duty only w hen necessary to maintain freedom of the press.

The i'arsity is a founding member of Canadian University Press (CUP). The x'arsity will not publish material attempting to incite violence or hatred towards particular individuals or an identifiable group, particularly on the basis of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability. The v arsity is home to the Ontario Region of Canadian University Press (ORCUP). In addition. The N'arsiry is a member of the Ontario Community Newspaper Association (OCNA).

Subscriptions to The N'arsiry arc $35.00 a year f<ir institutions, $20.00 a year for individuals. Second class mail registration number 5102.

Staff Meeting Thursday, June 9 7:00 p.m.

Pre-painting tomfoolery

Don't forget

L. Frum's

Youth for Free Trade


Underfunding crisis solved

Seems we've been misled. There it was all the time, a simple solution to underfunding in Ontario universities, and we missed it.

In a recent letter to the editor of the Globe and Mail, Alexander Reford, Dean of Men at St. Michael's College says, "The real and lasting solution is simple. Let the students pay or, at least, let them pay more."

Reford wants students to pay up to $1000 more for tuition. "As one who lives and works with university students," Reford contends, "1 can say that most can afford to pay more." Simple, isn't it? Frankly, it's just simple- minded voodoo economics.

"Most students now make between $4,000 and $6,000 each summer. Most of their parents are also doing well," says Reford.

Let's assume he's right. Students who live at home and have parents willing to pay for their education, in many cases, may be able to deal with the extra cost. But many don't have the luxury of parental support or a free room at home. Many students come to U of T from other provinces and must pay Toronto's high rents and living costs. Some are raising children. Reford's tuition increases will ultimately cost the provincial government more money.

Quite a few students are making $4,000 to $6,000 in the

summer, but many still require OSAP supplements to meet expenses. If they live on their own, conservative estimates show that they will be spending up to $5,000 a year on rent, $1,500 on food, from $250 to $480 on a Metropass (low rent housing is usually far away from campus), $200 on clothing and $500 on books (depending on the program). So far, that's $7,450 without tuition costs.

But, Reford says, "The needy have recourse to the $180 million available through the Ontario Student Assistance Program." Here, Reford's logic turns awry. Higher tuition costs will force students to ask the government for more money, and the benefits of increasing tuition will be offset by the number of students asking for government money.

In a perfect world, "the government must make immediate beneficiaries pay for university education," Reford says.

But we don't live in a perfect world, we live in Ontario, and not everybody is wealthy here.

The solution to underfunding is not as simple as Reford makes it out to be. Not only are his economics questionable, his scheme assumes a very narrow view of the universtiy population. Gone are the days when most students could live at home or in residence (and even residence costs are astronomical). And gone are the days when a student could live in Toronto on $4,000 to $6,000 a year.

Focus on Japan, a Varsity series

Japan flexes muscle at the summit


'Varsity Staff Writer

TOKYO— Japan, long relegated to second-class status among the world's economic powers will be out to flex its political muscle and improve its international image at the G-7 economic summit later this month.

High on the list of Japanese priorities is the expansion of Third World development assistance.

The second largest donor country in the world, Japan plans to increase its contribution and shift the emphasis away from tied aid.

Tied aid is the process of giving development assistance on the condition that it is used to buy a country's goods and services. It has been severely criticized as a self-serving subsidy for the donor nation's domestic economy.

"We've been accused of tying aid with trade," says Ryhichiro Yamazaki, a Japanese Foreign Ministry official responsible for North American affairs. "There is some truth in this at least in the 1960s and 1970s. But we have been trying to untie it as much as possible."

In 1985, Japan contributed $3,797 billion in overseas development assistance (ODA), 32 per cent of which

was tied or partially tied. In 1977, over half of Japan's ODA was tied.

Much of the ODA increase will be directed at Japan's neighbours.

"The increase doesn't mean assistance to the poorest countries but to Asian countries because Japan has the strongest ties to these," says Reiichiro Takahashi, an assistant director at the Economic Affairs Bureau in Japan.

"We're branching out more in our aid initiatives, but Asia is still the

Isabel Vincent

highest priority," Yamazaki says.

In 1986, Japan contributed $418 million to sub-Saharan African countries, compared with $2,494 billion to Asian countries.

A new political dimension will be added to the ODA policy to promote Japan's image as a peace-keeping nation. The new turn in the aid policy takes the focus away from economic assistance and puts it on multilateral

Continued on page 5

Tuesday, June 7, 1988

The Varsity


U of T students abroad: Mark Scullion

Tokyo: crowded, expensive, best in the world

BY ISABEL VINCENT Varsity Staff Writer

TOKYO— "If someone told me I had to spend the rest of my life here, I wouldn't struggle with it."

Mark Scullion loves Japan. The U of T student is nearing the end of a special exchange program with Waseda University in Tokyo, and in spite of some of the problems he's had here. Scullion is reluctant to leave.

ScuUion lives in a tiny room in the Tokyo ward of Shinjuku-ku near Waseda University. He has a sink, a gas stove and a tatami mat on the floor, and pays about $320 a month rent. He shares a bathroom and goes to the public bath everyday.

"It's very difficult if you're a foreigner living on your own here," said Scullion. "Everything in Tokyo is very, very expensive."

With a population of 12 million, Tokyo is a crowded industrial metropolis.

"The air pollution is so extreme, you just want to scream sometimes. You get on the train during rush hour, and you think, my God, this isn't the way humans should live, but then again the people are great. I can't imagine 12 million

Canadians living in an area this size and not chopping each others heads off."

Scullion spoke about the difficulty of adapting to the Japanese culture, but conceded that there are certain advantages to being a foreigner.

"People expect you're not going to understand everything. People assume you're not accustomed to a lot of things," ScuUion said. "In a broad sense, Japanese people are very insular and protective of family. Foreigners are still outside that circle so no matter how long you study Japanese and live in the country, there's only so far you can be fully accepted. To a certain point, you never escape your status as a foreigner."

Scullion mentioned that many foreigners in Japan, mainly those representing business interests, live a very comfortable. Western life.

"There are small communities in the heart of Tokyo you'd swear were little America. Mind you foreigners pay through the nose for this, but they remain very far removed. from the culture and the people, and the only way to learn something from the country is to adapt yourself to the environment."

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Isabel Vincent

year. If you want to make something challenging for yourself that's certainly possible, but it's not quite as demanding as we're used to at U of T."

Scullion suggested that Waseda is representative of Japanese universities in general.

"The education system in Japan is geared towards bringing students through a very rigid examination period, whereby you study, study, study through high school in order to pass the entrance examination to a prestigious university. Once you're in a university, your time is over. All you have to do is wait until examination day and the companies will welcome you with open arms, provided you come through a good institution," ScuUion said.

In Japan, academic pressure begins very early.

"It starts right from kindergarten," said Scullion. "Those who get into good kindergartens will get into good elementary schools and

high-schools. University, though, is really a gathering place for students to have a lot of fun before they have to go to work."

Many of Scullion's observations on the educational system come from his experience as an English teacher in Japan. Scullion started teaching at the language division of a private girls' school just outside Tokyo. He helped prepare students to write the English proficiency test that enables them to get an English certificate.

After three months. Scullion decided the commute to the school was getting to be too much and set up his own conversation classes. He currently teaches three classes a week to workers, housewives and high-school students.

"There's a big demand for English conversation schools in Japan right now, " Scullion said. "It's one of those trends. If your neighbour is learning English, well you think I'd better start learning English too."

Scullion is very enthusiastic about Japan.

"It's one of the best places in the world," he said. "I encourage anyone who can come here to do so, but remember the cultural differences. It's best to accept something as being different and adapt as best you can."

Mark Scullion returns to Toronto this month and will be back at U of T this fall to complete a degree in International Relations and Japanese Studies.

Japanese at summit

Continued from page 4

peace-keeping initiatives especially in Afghanistan.

The Japanese increase in foreign aid and defence expenditures has not come in isolation. They have been under tremendous pressure from the United States and other Western nations to increase their development aid and defence spending levels.

The U.S. for instance, spent 7.4 per cent of its Gross National Product in 1983 on defence while Japan spent .98 per cent of its GNP.

While Japan has overtaken the U.S. in percentage of GNP given to development (.29 per cent as compared to .23 per cent), it still lags behind countries

such as Canada, .48 per cent, the United Kingdom, .32 per cent, and Norway, 1 .20 per cent.

"Our level of defence and ODA must be comparable to the North American level," says Atsushi Nishioka, Assistant Director of the Japanese Aid Policy Division. "We are far below other countries and we want

Continued on page 12

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